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Audiovisual benefit for recognition of speech presented with single-talker noise in older listeners

MPS-Authors
http://pubman.mpdl.mpg.de/cone/persons/resource/persons86

Jesse,  Alexandra
Dept. of Psychology, University of Massachusetts, Amherst;
Language Comprehension Department, MPI for Psycholinguistics, Max Planck Society;

http://pubman.mpdl.mpg.de/cone/persons/resource/persons81

Janse,  Esther
Language Comprehension Department, MPI for Psycholinguistics, Max Planck Society;
Individual Differences in Language Processing Department, MPI for Psycholinguistics, Max Planck Society;
Utrecht Institute of Linguistics OTS, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands;

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JesseJanse_LCP2012.pdf
(Publisher version), 566KB

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Citation

Jesse, A., & Janse, E. (2012). Audiovisual benefit for recognition of speech presented with single-talker noise in older listeners. Language and Cognitive Processes, 27(7/8), 1167-1191. doi:10.1080/01690965.2011.620335.


Cite as: http://hdl.handle.net/11858/00-001M-0000-0012-D008-3
Abstract
Older listeners are more affected than younger listeners in their recognition of speech in adverse conditions, such as when they also hear a single-competing speaker. In the present study, we investigated with a speeded response task whether older listeners with various degrees of hearing loss benefit under such conditions from also seeing the speaker they intend to listen to. We also tested, at the same time, whether older adults need postperceptual processing to obtain an audiovisual benefit. When tested in a phoneme-monitoring task with single-talker noise present, older (and younger) listeners detected target phonemes more reliably and more rapidly in meaningful sentences uttered by the target speaker when they also saw the target speaker. This suggests that older adults processed audiovisual speech rapidly and efficiently enough to benefit already during spoken sentence processing. Audiovisual benefits for older adults were similar in size to those observed for younger adults in terms of response latencies, but smaller for detection accuracy. Older adults with more hearing loss showed larger audiovisual benefits. Attentional abilities predicted the size of audiovisual response time benefits in both age groups. Audiovisual benefits were found in both age groups when monitoring for the visually highly distinct phoneme /p/ and when monitoring for the visually less distinct phoneme /k/. Visual speech thus provides segmental information about the target phoneme, but also provides more global contextual information that helps both older and younger adults in this adverse listening situation.