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Journal Article

N‐Functionalized Hydrothermal Carbon Materials using Urotropine as N‐Precursor


Hetaba,  Walid
Inorganic Chemistry, Fritz Haber Institute, Max Planck Society;

Schlögl,  Robert
Heterogeneous Reactions, Max-Planck-Institute for Chemical Energy Conversion , Stiftstr. 34 - 36 45470 Mülheim an der Ruhr, Germany;
Inorganic Chemistry, Fritz Haber Institute, Max Planck Society;

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Straten, J. W., Schleker, P., Krasowska, M., Veroutis, E., Granwehr, J., Auer, A. A., et al. (2018). N‐Functionalized Hydrothermal Carbon Materials using Urotropine as N‐Precursor. Chemistry – A European Journal. doi:10.1002/chem.201800341.

Cite as:
Nitrogen containing hydrothermal carbon (N‐HTC) materials of spherical particle morphology were synthesized by hydrothermal synthesis using glucose and urotropine as precursors. The molar ratio of glucose and urotropine has been varied in order to achieve a continuous increase of the N‐content. By raising the ratio of urotropine to glucose, a maximal N‐fraction of about 19 wt% could be obtained. Decomposition products of both glucose and urotropine react with each other, opening up a variety of possible reaction pathways. The pH has a pronounced effect on the reaction path of the corresponding reaction steps. For the first time, a comprehensive analytical investigation of a series of N‐containing HTC materials, comprising a multitude of analytical tools and instruments, was applied. Functional groups and structural motifs that are identified were analyzed by means of FTIR spectroscopy, TG‐MS and solid‐sate NMR spectroscopy. Information on reaction mechanisms and structural details were obtained by electronic structure calculations that were compared with vibrational spectra of polyfuran or polypyrrole‐like groups, which represent structural motifs occurring in the present samples.