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Wireless Amplified NMR detector (WAND) for high resolution in-vivo image of internal organs

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Qian, C., Yu, X., Chen, D.-Y., Dodd, S., Bouraoud, N., Pothayee, N., et al. (2013). Wireless Amplified NMR detector (WAND) for high resolution in-vivo image of internal organs. Radiology, 268(1), 228-236. doi:10.1148/radiol.13121352.

Purpose To assess the feasibility of imaging deep-lying internal organs at high spatial resolution by imaging kidney glomeruli in a rodent model with use of a newly developed, wireless amplified nuclear magnetic resonance (MR) detector. Materials and Methods This study was approved by the Animal Care and Use Committee at the National Institutes of Health/National Institute of Neurologic Disorder and Stroke. As a preclinical demonstration of this new detection technology, five different millimeter-scale wireless amplified nuclear MR detectors configured as double frequency resonators were chronically implanted on the medial surface of the kidney in five Sprague-Dawley rats for MR imaging at 11.7 T. Among these rats, two were administered gadopentetate dimeglumine to visualize renal tubules on T1-weighted gradient-refocused echo (GRE) images, two were administered cationized ferritin to visualize glomeruli on T2*-weighted GRE images, and the remaining rat was administered both gadopentetate dimeglumine and cationized ferritin to visualize the interleaved pattern of renal tubules and glomeruli. The image intensity in each pixel was compared with the local tissue signal intensity average to identify regions of hyper- or hypointensity. Results T1-weighted images with 70-μm in-plane resolution and 200-μm section thickness were obtained within 3.2 minutes to image renal tubules, and T2*-weighted images of the same resolution were obtained within 5.8 minutes to image the glomeruli. Hyperintensity from gadopentetate dimeglumine enabled visualization of renal tubules, and hypointensity from cationic ferritin enabled visualization of the glomeruli. Conclusion High-spatial-resolution images have been obtained to observe kidney microstructures in vivo with a wireless amplified nuclear MR detector.