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Counting Crossing Free Structures


Bringmann,  Karl
Algorithms and Complexity, MPI for Informatics, Max Planck Society;

Ray,  Saurabh
Algorithms and Complexity, MPI for Informatics, Max Planck Society;

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Alvarez, V., Bringmann, K., Curticapean, R., & Ray, S. (2012). Counting Crossing Free Structures. In T. K. Dey, & S. Whitesides (Eds.), Proceedings of the Twenty-Eight Annual Symposium on Computational Geometry (pp. 61-68). Chapel Hill, NC, USA: ACM.

Let P be a set of n points in the plane. A crossing-free structure on P is a straight-edge planar graph with vertex set in P. Examples of crossing-free structures include triangulations of P, and spanning cycles of P, also known as polygonalizations of P, among others. There has been a large amount of research trying to bound the number of such structures. In particular, bounding the number of triangulations spanned by P has received considerable attention. It is currently known that every set of n points has at most O(30^n) and at least  (2.43^n) triangulations. However, much less is known about the algorithmic problem of counting crossing-free structures of a given set P. For example, no algorithm for counting triangulations is known that, on all instances, performs faster than enumerating all triangulations. In this paper we develop a general technique for computing the number of crossing-free structures of an input set P. We apply the technique to obtain algorithms for computing the number of triangulations and spanning cycles of P. The running time of our algorithms is upper bounded by n^O(k), where k is the number of onion layers of P. In particular, we show that our algorithm for counting triangulations is not slower than O(3.1414^n). Given that there are several well-studied configurations of points with at least (3.464^n) triangulations, and some even with (8^n) triangulations, our algorithm is the first to asymptotically outperform any enumeration algorithm for such instances. In fact, it is widely believed that any set of n points must have at least (3.464^n) triangulations. If this is true, then our algorithm is strictly sub-linear in the number of triangulations counted. We also show that our techniques are general enough to solve the restricted triangulation counting problem, which we prove to be W[2]-hard in the parameter k. This implies a �no free lunch� result: In order to be fixed-parameter tractable, our general algorithm must rely on additional properties that are specific to the considered class of structures.