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Journal Article

Revisiting the Meteor 1925-1927 hydrographic dataset reveals centennial full-depth changes in the Atlantic Ocean

MPS-Authors
http://pubman.mpdl.mpg.de/cone/persons/resource/persons37193

Jungclaus,  Johann H.
Director’s Research Group OES, The Ocean in the Earth System, MPI for Meteorology, Max Planck Society;

http://pubman.mpdl.mpg.de/cone/persons/resource/persons37167

Haak,  Helmut
The Ocean in the Earth System, MPI for Meteorology, Max Planck Society;

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grl50503.pdf
(Publisher version), 541KB

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Citation

Gouretski, V., Jungclaus, J. H., & Haak, H. (2013). Revisiting the Meteor 1925-1927 hydrographic dataset reveals centennial full-depth changes in the Atlantic Ocean. Geophysical Research Letters, 40, 2236-2241. doi:10.1002/grl.50503.


Cite as: http://hdl.handle.net/11858/00-001M-0000-0013-FB26-9
Abstract
The hydrographic data set of the German Atlantic Expedition (GAE) 1925-1927 is compared with the contemporary profiling float and ship-based hydrography to reveal full-depth changes in the Atlantic Ocean between 19°N and 64°S. The volume-mean warming over the last 80 years amounts to 0.119 ± 0.067°C, accompanied by an increase in salinity of 0.014 ± 0.010. A clear vertical structure of these changes is observed: on average, the ocean has warmed by 0.272 ± 0.093°C and became saltier by 0.030 ± 0.014 down to about 2000 m, but cooled and freshened slightly in the deeper layers. These changes can be traced throughout the whole hydrographic survey, indicating the basin-wide character of the observed changes on a centennial timescale. The observed warming is consistent with climate model simulations over the 20th century, suggesting an attribution to anthropogenic forcing. Comparison with the pre-GAE cruises reveals no discernible warming between the 1870s and 1906/1911. © 2013 American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.