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Journal Article

Double average parallel steady-state free precession imaging: Optimized eddy current and transient oscillation compensation


Leupold J, Bieri O, Scheffler,  K
Department High-Field Magnetic Resonance, Max Planck Institute for Biological Cybernetics, Max Planck Society;

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Markl, M., Leupold J, Bieri O, Scheffler, K., & Hennig, J. (2005). Double average parallel steady-state free precession imaging: Optimized eddy current and transient oscillation compensation. Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, 54(4), 965-974. doi:10.1002/mrm.20615.

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Balanced steady-state free precession (SSFP) imaging is sensitive to off-resonance effects, which can lead to considerable artifacts during a transient phase following magnetization preparation or steady-state interruption. In addition, nonlinear k-space encoding is required if contrast-relevant k-space regions need to be acquired at specific delays following magnetization preparation or for transient artifact reduction in cardiac-gated k-space segmented CINE imaging. Such trajectories are problematic for balanced SSFP imaging due to nonconstant eddy current effects and resulting disruption of the steady state. In this work, a novel acquisition strategy for balanced SSFP imaging is presented that utilizes scan time reduction by parallel imaging for optimized “double average” eddy current compensation and artifact reduction during the transient phase following steady-state storage and magnetization preparation. Double average parallel SSFP imaging was applied to k-space segmented CINE SSFP tagging as well as nongated centrically encoded SSFP imaging. Phantom and human studies exhibit substantial reduction in steady-state storage and eddy current artifacts while maintaining spatial resolution, signal-to-noise ratio, and similar total scan time of a standard SSFP acquisition. The proposed technique can easily be extended to other acquisition schemes that would benefit from nonlinear reordering schemes and/or rely on interruption of the balanced SSFP steady state.