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Localized intermolecular zero-quantum coherence spectroscopy in vivo


Balla,  DZ
Department High-Field Magnetic Resonance, Max Planck Institute for Biological Cybernetics, Max Planck Society;

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Balla, D. (2008). Localized intermolecular zero-quantum coherence spectroscopy in vivo. Concepts in Magnetic Resonance A, 32(2), 117-133. doi:10.1002/cmr.a.20104.

Resolution enhancement in NMR spectra, acquired in spatially or temporally varying magnetic fields, can be achieved with 2D pulse sequences detecting intermolecular zero-quantum coherences (iZQC). The insensitivity towards long range field distortions renders these methods particularly appealing for in vivo NMR spectroscopy, where ample sources of field inhomogeneities are encountered. This article provides a comprehensive description of iZQC spectroscopy, following a classical treatment. A pictorial explanation is given of how iZQC signal is formed under the action of the distant dipolar field in the sample and how this local refocusing process leads to line narrowing in the indirect dimension of 2D spectra. Signal evolution and peak positions in the spectra are analyzed by solving the modified Bloch equations. Finally, it is explained how water suppression and localization can be combined with the iZQC preparation sequence, and recent in vivo applications are discussed. The given examples illustrate that iZQC spectroscopy can provide either resolution or sensitivity enhancement in vivo.