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Development and Validation of Acupuncture Fear Scale


Kim Y-J, Lee H-J, Kim S-Y, Lee H, Chang,  D-S
Department Human Perception, Cognition and Action, Max Planck Institute for Biological Cybernetics, Max Planck Society;

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Kim, H.-S., Kim Y-J, Lee H-J, Kim S-Y, Lee H, Chang, D.-S., Lee H, Park, H.-J., & Chae, Y. (2013). Development and Validation of Acupuncture Fear Scale. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2013, 1-8. doi:10.1155/2013/109704.

Objectives. Strong aversions to acupuncture have been an obstacle to understanding its intrinsic action of acupuncture. Thus, it is necessary to evaluate the nature and extent of fear of acupuncture treatment. Our study aims to develop and validate an instrument that evaluates a patient’s fear of acupuncture treatment. Methods. We have developed an acupuncture fear scale, a 16-item instrument which assesses the acupuncture fear score and uses it to survey 275 participants in South Korea, thus testing the reliability and validity of the instrument. Results. Internal consistency was high (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.935). Test-retest reliability (Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient) among 33 participants out of 275 ranged from 0.565 to 0.797 (P < 0.001). Principal component analysis revealed two factors accounting for 68 of the variance, which are painful sensation and possible adverse events, respectively. The acupuncture fear scale was positively correlated with the total of fear of pain questionnaire-III (r = 0.423, P < 0.001). Conclusions. The acupuncture fear scale can be a valid and reliable instrument that can measure fear of acupuncture treatment. These results strongly suggest that it would be a clinically useful tool to assess fear of acupuncture in the acupuncture clinic setting and an important instrument to understand the complex social-behavioral component of acupuncture modality.