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Using a one-and-a-half order closure model of the atmospheric boundary layer for surface flux footprint estimation

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http://pubman.mpdl.mpg.de/cone/persons/resource/persons62566

Sogachev,  A.
Department Biogeochemical Systems, Prof. D. Schimel, Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry, Max Planck Society;

http://pubman.mpdl.mpg.de/cone/persons/resource/persons62467

Lloyd,  J.
Research Group Carbon-Change Atmosphere, Dr. J. Lloyd, Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry, Max Planck Society;

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Sogachev, A., & Lloyd, J. (2004). Using a one-and-a-half order closure model of the atmospheric boundary layer for surface flux footprint estimation. Boundary-Layer Meteorology, 112(3), 467-502.


Cite as: http://hdl.handle.net/11858/00-001M-0000-000E-D254-0
Abstract
A knowledge of the distribution of the contribution of upwind sources to measurements of vertical scalar flux densities is important for the correct interpretation of eddy covariance data. Several approaches have been developed to estimate this so-called footprint function. Here a new approach based on the ensemble-averaged Navier-Stokes equations is presented. Comparisons of numerical results using this approach with results from other studies under a range of environmental conditions show that the model predictions are robust. Moreover, the approach outlined here has the advantage of a potential wide applicability, due to an ability to take into account the heterogeneous nature of underlying surfaces. For example, the model showed that any variations in surface drag, such as must occur in real life heterogeneous canopies, can exert a marked influence of the shape and extent of flux footprints. Indeed, it seems likely that under such circumstances, estimates of surface fluxes will be weighted towards areas of highest foliage density ( and therefore quite likely higher photosynthetic rates) close to the measurement sensor. determined for a mixed coniferous forest in european Russia. A marked asymmetry of the footprint in the crosswind direction was observed, this being especially pronounced for non-uniform plant distributions involving vegetation types with different morphological and physiological properties. The model also found that, other things being equal, the footprint peak for forest soil respiration is typically over twice the distance from the above canopy measurement sensor compared to that for canopy photosynthesis. This result has important consequences for the interpretation of annual ecosystem carbon balances by the eddy covariance method. [References: 54]