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Contemporary and pre-industrial global reactive nitrogen budgets


Holland,  E. A.
Research Group Bioathmospheric Chemistry, Dr. E. Holland, Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry, Max Planck Society;

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Holland, E. A., Dentener, F. J., Braswell, B. H., & Sulzman, J. M. (1999). Contemporary and pre-industrial global reactive nitrogen budgets. Biogeochemistry, 46(1-3), 7-43.

Increases and expansion of anthropogenic emissions of both oxidized nitrogen compounds, NO(x, a)nd a reduced nitrogen compound, NH3, have driven an increase in nitrogen deposition. We estimate global NOx and NH3 emissions and use a model of the global troposphere, MOGUNTIA, to examine the pre-industrial and contemporary quantities and spatial patterns of wet and dry NOy and NHx deposition. Pre-industrial wet plus dry NOx and NHx deposition was greatest for tropical ecosystems, related to soil emissions, biomass burning and lightning emissions. Contemporary NOy + NHx wet and dry deposition onto Northern Hemisphere (NH) temperate ecosystems averages more than four times that of pre-industrial N deposition and far exceeds contemporary tropical N deposition. All temperate and tropical biomes receive more N via deposition today than pre-industrially. Comparison of contemporary wet deposition model estimates to measurements of wet deposition reveal that modeled and measured wet deposition for both NO3- and NH4+ were quite similar over the U.S. Over Western Europe, the model tended to underestimate wet deposition of NO3+ and NH4+ but bulk deposition measurements were comparable to modeled total deposition. For the U.S. and Western Europe, we also estimated N emission and deposition budgets. In the U.S., estimated emissions exceed interpolated total deposition by 3-6 Tg N, suggesting that substantial N is transported offshore and/or the remote and rural location of the sites may fail to capture the deposition of urban emissions. In Europe, by contrast, interpolated total N deposition balances estimated emissions within the uncertainty of each. [References: 94]