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Four-Hundred Million Years of Conserved Synteny of Human Xp and Xq Genes on Three Tetraodon Chromosomes

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http://pubman.mpdl.mpg.de/cone/persons/resource/persons50501

Ropers,  Hans Hilger
Dept. of Human Molecular Genetics (Head: Hans-Hilger Ropers), Max Planck Institute for Molecular Genetics, Max Planck Society;

http://pubman.mpdl.mpg.de/cone/persons/resource/persons50182

Haaf,  Thomas
Dept. of Human Molecular Genetics (Head: Hans-Hilger Ropers), Max Planck Institute for Molecular Genetics, Max Planck Society;

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Zitation

Grützner, F., Roest Crollius, H., Lütjens, G., Jaillon, O., Weissenbach, J., Ropers, H. H., et al. (2002). Four-Hundred Million Years of Conserved Synteny of Human Xp and Xq Genes on Three Tetraodon Chromosomes. Genome Research, 12(9), 1316-1322.


Zitierlink: http://hdl.handle.net/11858/00-001M-0000-0010-8BC0-7
Zusammenfassung
The freshwater pufferfish Tetraodon nigroviridis (TNI) has become highly attractive as a compact reference vertebrate genome for gene finding and validation. We have mapped genes, which are more or less evenly spaced on the human chromosomes 9 and X, on Tetraodon chromosomes using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), to establish syntenic relationships between Tetraodon and other key vertebrate genomes. PufferFISH revealed that the human X is an orthologous mosaic of three Tetraodon chromosomes. More than 350 million years ago, an ancestral vertebrate autosome shared orthologous Xp and Xq genes with Tetraodon chromosomes 1 and 7. The shuffled order of Xp and Xq orthologs on their syntenic Tetraodon chromosomes can be explained by the prevalence of evolutionary inversions. The Tetraodon 2 orthologous genes are clustered in human Xp11 and represent a recent addition to the eutherian X sex chromosome. The human chromosome 9 and the avian Z sex chromosome show a much lower degree of synteny conservation in the pufferfish than the human X chromosome. We propose that a special selection process during vertebrate evolution has shaped a highly conserved array(s) of X-linked genes long before the X was used as a mammalian sex chromosome and many X chromosomal genes were recruited for reproduction and/or the development of cognitive abilities.