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Journal Article

The DNA sequence of the human X chromosome

MPS-Authors
http://pubman.mpdl.mpg.de/cone/persons/resource/persons50580

Sudbrak,  Ralf
Dept. of Vertebrate Genomics (Head: Hans Lehrach), Max Planck Institute for Molecular Genetics, Max Planck Society;

http://pubman.mpdl.mpg.de/cone/persons/resource/persons50090

Beck,  Alfred
Computing (Head: Donald Buczek/Peter Marquardt), Scientific Service (Head: Christoph Krukenkamp), Max Planck Institute for Molecular Genetics, Max Planck Society;

Heitmann,  Katja
Max Planck Society;

http://pubman.mpdl.mpg.de/cone/persons/resource/persons50200

Hennig,  Steffen
Dept. of Vertebrate Genomics (Head: Hans Lehrach), Max Planck Institute for Molecular Genetics, Max Planck Society;

http://pubman.mpdl.mpg.de/cone/persons/resource/persons50382

Klages,  Sven
Dept. of Vertebrate Genomics (Head: Hans Lehrach), Max Planck Institute for Molecular Genetics, Max Planck Society;

Kosiura,  Anna
Max Planck Society;

http://pubman.mpdl.mpg.de/cone/persons/resource/persons73789

Mueller,  Ines
Molecular Cytogenetics (Reinhard Ullmann), Dept. of Human Molecular Genetics (Head: Hans-Hilger Ropers), Max Planck Institute for Molecular Genetics, Max Planck Society;

http://pubman.mpdl.mpg.de/cone/persons/resource/persons50488

Reinhardt,  Richard
High Throughput Technologies, Max Planck Institute for Molecular Genetics, Max Planck Society;

http://pubman.mpdl.mpg.de/cone/persons/resource/persons50409

Lehrach,  Hans
Dept. of Vertebrate Genomics (Head: Hans Lehrach), Max Planck Institute for Molecular Genetics, Max Planck Society;

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Citation

Sudbrak, R., Beck, A., Heitmann, K., Hennig, S., Klages, S., Kosiura, A., et al. (2005). The DNA sequence of the human X chromosome. Nature, 343(7031), 325-337. doi:0.1038/nature03440.


Cite as: http://hdl.handle.net/11858/00-001M-0000-0010-86F9-F
Abstract
The human X chromosome has a unique biology that was shaped by its evolution as the sex chromosome shared by males and females. We have determined 99.3% of the euchromatic sequence of the X chromosome. Our analysis illustrates the autosomal origin of the mammalian sex chromosomes, the stepwise process that led to the progressive loss of recombination between X and Y, and the extent of subsequent degradation of the Y chromosome. LINE1 repeat elements cover one-third of the X chromosome, with a distribution that is consistent with their proposed role as way stations in the process of X-chromosome inactivation. We found 1,098 genes in the sequence, of which 99 encode proteins expressed in testis and in various tumour types. A disproportionately high number of mendelian diseases are documented for the X chromosome. Of this number, 168 have been explained by mutations in 113 X-linked genes, which in many cases were characterized with the aid of the DNA sequence.