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Journal Article

Characterization of the telomere complex, TERF1 and TERF2 genes in muntjac species with fusion karyotypes


Hartmann,  Nils
Max Planck Society;

Scherthan,  Harry
Dept. of Human Molecular Genetics (Head: Hans-Hilger Ropers), Max Planck Institute for Molecular Genetics, Max Planck Society;

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Hartmann, N., & Scherthan, H. (2005). Characterization of the telomere complex, TERF1 and TERF2 genes in muntjac species with fusion karyotypes. Experimental Cell Research, 306(1), 64-74. doi:10.1016/j.yexcr.2005.02.001.

Cite as:
The telomere binding proteins TRF1 and TRF2 maintain and protect chromosome ends and confer karyotypic stability. Chromosome evolution in the genus Muntiacus is characterized by numerous tandem (end-to-end) fusions. To study TRF1 and TRF2 telomere binding proteins in Muntiacus species, we isolated and characterized the TERF1 and -2 genes from Indian muntjac (Muntiacus muntjak vaginalis; 2n = 6 female) and from Chinese muntjac (Muntiacus reveesi; 2n = 46). Expression analysis revealed that both genes are ubiquitously expressed and sequence analysis identified several transcript variants of both TERF genes. Control experiments disclosed a novel testis-specific splice variant of TERF1 in human testes. Amino acid sequence comparisons demonstrate that Muntiacus TRF1 and in particular TRF2 are highly conserved between muntjac and human. In vivo TRF2-GFP and immuno-staining studies in muntjac cell lines revealed telomeric TRF2 localization, while deletion of the DNA binding domain abrogated this localization, suggesting muntjac TRF2 represents a functional telomere protein. Finally, expression analysis of a set of telomere-related genes revealed their presence in muntjac fibroblasts and testis tissue, which suggests the presence of a conserved telomere complex in muntjacs. However, a deviation from the common theme was noted for the TERT gene, encoding the catalytic subunit of telomerase; TERT expression could not be detected in Indian or Chinese muntjac cDNA or genomic DNA using a series of conserved primers, while TRAP assay revealed functional telomerase in Chinese muntjac testis tissues. This suggests muntjacs may harbor a diverged telomerase sequence.