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Sexually dimorphic gene expression in the heart of mice and men

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http://pubman.mpdl.mpg.de/cone/persons/resource/persons50347

Isensee,  Jörg
Signal Transduction in Mental Retardation and Pain (Tim Hucho), Dept. of Human Molecular Genetics (Head: Hans-Hilger Ropers), Max Planck Institute for Molecular Genetics, Max Planck Society;

Witt,  Henning
Max Planck Society;

Ruiz Noppinger,  Patricia
Max Planck Society;

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Isensee, J., Witt, H., Pregla, R., Hetzer, R., Regitz-Zagrosek, V., & Ruiz Noppinger, P. (2008). Sexually dimorphic gene expression in the heart of mice and men. Journal of Molecular Medicine, 86(1), 61-74. doi:10.1007/s00109-007-0240-z.


Cite as: http://hdl.handle.net/11858/00-001M-0000-0010-80C0-A
Abstract
The prevalence and clinical manifestation of several cardiovascular diseases vary considerably with sex and age. Thus, a better understanding of the molecular basis of these differences may represent a starting point for an improved gender-specific medicine. Despite the fact that sex-specific differences have been observed in the cardiovascular system of humans and animal models, systematic analyses of sexual dimorphisms at the transcriptional level in the healthy heart are missing. Therefore we performed gene expression profiling on mouse and human cardiac samples of both sexes and young as well as aged individuals and verified our results for a subset of genes using real-time polymerase chain reaction in independent left ventricular samples. To tackle the question whether sex differences are evolutionarily conserved, we also compared sexually dimorphic genes between both species. We found that genes located on sex chromosomes were the most abundant ones among the sexually dimorphic genes. Male-specific expression of Y-linked genes was observed in mouse hearts as well as in the human myocardium (e.g. Ddx3y, Eif2s3y and Jarid1d). Higher expression levels of X-linked genes were detected in female mice for Xist, Timp1 and Car5b and XIST, EIF2S3X and GPM6B in women. Furthermore, genes on autosomal chromosomes encoding cytochromes of the monoxygenase family (e.g. Cyp2b10), carbonic anhydrases (e.g. Car2 and Car3) and natriuretic peptides (e.g. Nppb) were identified with sex- and/or age-specific expression levels. This study underlines the relevance of sex and age as modifiers of cardiac gene expression. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00109-007-0240-z) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.