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Homeobox genes d11-d13 and a13 control mouse autopod cortical bone and joint formation.

MPG-Autoren
http://pubman.mpdl.mpg.de/cone/persons/resource/persons50612

Villavicencio-Lorini,  P.
Research Group Development & Disease (Head: Stefan Mundlos), Max Planck Institute for Molecular Genetics, Max Planck Society;

http://pubman.mpdl.mpg.de/cone/persons/resource/persons50402

Kuss,  P.
Research Group Development & Disease (Head: Stefan Mundlos), Max Planck Institute for Molecular Genetics, Max Planck Society;

Friedrich,  J.
Max Planck Society;

Haupt,  J.
Max Planck Society;

http://pubman.mpdl.mpg.de/cone/persons/resource/persons50605

Turkmen,  S.
Dept. of Human Molecular Genetics (Head: Hans-Hilger Ropers), Max Planck Institute for Molecular Genetics, Max Planck Society;

http://pubman.mpdl.mpg.de/cone/persons/resource/persons50196

Hecht,  J.
Research Group Development & Disease (Head: Stefan Mundlos), Max Planck Institute for Molecular Genetics, Max Planck Society;

http://pubman.mpdl.mpg.de/cone/persons/resource/persons50437

Mundlos,  S.
Research Group Development & Disease (Head: Stefan Mundlos), Max Planck Institute for Molecular Genetics, Max Planck Society;

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JCI41554.pdf
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Zitation

Villavicencio-Lorini, P., Kuss, P., Friedrich, J., Haupt, J., Farooq, M., Turkmen, S., et al. (2010). Homeobox genes d11-d13 and a13 control mouse autopod cortical bone and joint formation. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 120(6), 1994-2004. doi:10.1172/JCI41554 41554.


Zitierlink: http://hdl.handle.net/11858/00-001M-0000-0010-7AE8-5
Zusammenfassung
The molecular mechanisms that govern bone and joint formation are complex, involving an integrated network of signaling pathways and gene regulators. We investigated the role of Hox genes, which are known to specify individual segments of the skeleton, in the formation of autopod limb bones (i.e., the hands and feet) using the mouse mutant synpolydactyly homolog (spdh), which encodes a polyalanine expansion in Hoxd13. We found that no cortical bone was formed in the autopod in spdh/spdh mice; instead, these bones underwent trabecular ossification after birth. Spdh/spdh metacarpals acquired an ovoid shape and developed ectopic joints, indicating a loss of long bone characteristics and thus a transformation of metacarpals into carpal bones. The perichondrium of spdh/spdh mice showed abnormal morphology and decreased expression of Runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), which was identified as a direct Hoxd13 transcriptional target. Hoxd11-/-Hoxd12-/-Hoxd13-/- triple-knockout mice and Hoxd13-/-Hoxa13+/- mice exhibited similar but less severe defects, suggesting that these Hox genes have similar and complementary functions and that the spdh allele acts as a dominant negative. This effect was shown to be due to sequestration of other polyalanine-containing transcription factors by the mutant Hoxd13 in the cytoplasm, leading to their degradation. These data indicate that Hox genes not only regulate patterning but also directly influence bone formation and the ossification pattern of bones, in part via Runx2.