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Molecular characterization of the "26S" proteasome complex from rat liver

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Yoshimura, T., Kameyama, K., Takagi, T., Ikai, A., Tokunaga, F., Koide, T., et al. (1993). Molecular characterization of the "26S" proteasome complex from rat liver. Journal of Structural Biology., 111(3), 200-211.

The molecular properties of an ATP/ubiquitin-dependent "26S" proteasome complex purified from rat liver were examined by physicochemical, biochemical, and morphological analyses. On ultracentrifugation, the proteasome complex sedimented as almost a single component with a sedimentation coefficient of 30.3S. Dynamic light-scattering measurements indicated that it has a diffusion coefficient of 1.38 x 10(-7) cm2/sec and a Stokes radius of 15.5 nm. From these two coefficients, the protein complex was estimated to have the high molecular weight of 2.02 x 10(6). Static light-scattering analysis indicated a molecular weight of 1.91 x 10(6) and a radius of gyration of 16.8 nm. The proteasome complex was found to be composed of multiple subunits of the 20S proteasome with molecular weights of 2.1-3.1 x 10(4) and 15-20 protein species with molecular weights of 3.5-11.0 x 10(4), which were directly associated with the 20S proteasome. The electron micrographic finding that the 26S proteasome complex had a caterpillar shape, direct electronmicroscopic observations on the subunit arrangement of the 20S proteasome, and classification of the subunits of the latter into two groups with respect to sequence homology suggested that the 26S complex is a symmetrical assembly of two domains, each containing a large terminal subset and half the central 20S subset of components. For clarification of the molecular structure of the 26S proteasome complex in solution, its physicochemical parameters were calculated theoretically using a model based on this caterpillar-shaped complex. The values obtained for the Stokes radius and radius of gyration of 12.2 and 14.9 nm were consistent with the experimental values. These results provide evidence that the 26S proteasome complex is a cylindrical caterpillar-like structure of "30S" in solution, consisting of a 20S proteasome component with proteolytic function and multiple other components, which possibly have regulatory roles.