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Journal Article

Nuclear localization signals of human and thermoplasma proteasomal alpha subunits are functional in vitro

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Nederlof, P. M., Wang, H. R., & Baumeister, W. (1995). Nuclear localization signals of human and thermoplasma proteasomal alpha subunits are functional in vitro. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 92(26), 12060-12064.


Cite as: http://hdl.handle.net/11858/00-001M-0000-0010-7321-A
Abstract
Proteasomes are located both in the nuclei and in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. Active transport of these complexes through the nuclear pores has been proposed to be mediated by nuclear localization signals (NLS), which have been found in several of the alpha-type proteasomal subunits, We have tested three different putative NLS sequences from human alpha-type proteasomal subunits (HscL, Hsc9, and Hsc3), as well as a putative NLS-type sequence from the archaeon Thermoplasma acidophilum, for their ability to direct nonnuclear proteins to the nucleus. Synthetic peptides containing these putative NLS sequences were generated and conjugated to large fluorescent reporter molecules: allophycocyanin or fluorescein-labeled bovine serum albumin. The conjugates were introduced into digitonin-permeabilized HeLa and 3T3 cells in the presence of cell lysate and ATP, and nuclear import was monitored by fluorescence microscopy. All three putative NLS sequences from human proteasomal subunits were able to direct the reporter molecules to the nucleus in both fell types, although differences in efficiency were observed. Substitution of threonine for the first lysine residue of the eukaryotic NLS motifs inhibited nuclear import completely. Interestingly, the putative NLS sequence found in T. acidophilum was also functional as a nuclear targeting sequence. [References: 47]