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The importance of highly unsaturated fatty acids in zooplankton nutrition: evidence from experiments with Daphnia, a cyanobacterium and lipid emulsions.

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http://pubman.mpdl.mpg.de/cone/persons/resource/persons56643

DeMott,  William R.
Department Ecophysiology, Max Planck Institute for Limnology, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Biology, Max Planck Society;

http://pubman.mpdl.mpg.de/cone/persons/resource/persons56680

Müller-Navarra,  Dörthe C.
Department Ecophysiology, Max Planck Institute for Limnology, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Biology, Max Planck Society;

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Citation

DeMott, W. R., & Müller-Navarra, D. C. (1997). The importance of highly unsaturated fatty acids in zooplankton nutrition: evidence from experiments with Daphnia, a cyanobacterium and lipid emulsions. Freshwater Biology, 38(3), 649-664.


Cite as: http://hdl.handle.net/11858/00-001M-0000-000F-E1F4-F
Abstract
1. We used laboratory growth and feeding experiments to evaluate the role of ω3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA) in zooplankton nutrition. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) comprised 40% of total fatty acids (FA) in the green alga Scenedesmus acutus but only 6% in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus. Scenedesmus contained modest amounts of the ω3 HUFA eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5ω3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6ω3), whereas Synechococcus contained only a trace of EPA and no DHA. 2. One-day-old Daphnia maintained high growth rates for 2-3 days on a diet of Synechococcus but exhibited reduced growth or even lost weight over the later part of the 6- or 7-day experiments. Daphnia magna grew better than D. galeata or D. pulicaria on a diet of pure Synechococcus. Daphnids fed the same concentration (0.5 mgC l⁻¹) of green algae or a mixture of green algae and Synechococcus maintained high growth rates. 3. Supplementing Synechococcus with fish oil emulsions rich in omega 3 HUFA markedly improved the growth and reproduction of all three Daphnia species. Supplementation with an emulsion of monounsaturated oleic add (18: 1ω9), however, did not affect the growth of D. galeata and caused a decrease in the growth of D. magna. 4. Short-term (7 min) and long-term (3 h) feeding trials with ¹⁴C-labelled Synechococcus were used to evaluate the effects of acclimation and mixed diets on carbon incorporation. D. galeata that had fed on unlabelled Synechococcus for 3 days exhibited no decline in clearance rate but a marked decline in carbon incorporation in comparison with animals acclimated with Scenedesmus or fed a mixture of Synechococcus and Scenedesmus. 5. Our results support the hypothesis that the poor nutritional quality of a cyanobacterium is at least partially due to a HUFA deficiency. Growth and feeding experiments both suggest that the utilization of Synechococcus is enhanced by HUFA from lipid reserves or a mixed diet.