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The development of Nemurella pictetii KLAPÁLEK (Plecoptera: Nemouridae) in two springstreams in central Europe

MPG-Autoren
http://pubman.mpdl.mpg.de/cone/persons/resource/persons56842

Nesterovitch,  Andrei
Limnological River Station Schlitz, Max Planck Institute for Limnology, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Biology, Max Planck Society;

http://pubman.mpdl.mpg.de/cone/persons/resource/persons57026

Zwick,  Peter
Limnological River Station Schlitz, Max Planck Institute for Limnology, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Biology, Max Planck Society;

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Zitation

Nesterovitch, A., & Zwick, P. (2003). The development of Nemurella pictetii KLAPÁLEK (Plecoptera: Nemouridae) in two springstreams in central Europe. Limnologica, 33, 231-243.


Zitierlink: http://hdl.handle.net/11858/00-001M-0000-000F-C7E8-E
Zusammenfassung
From April 1997 to June 1998 Nemurella pictetii populations were regularly sampled in two springstreams at 220 and 850 m a.s.l., respectively, in Hesse (Germany), at approximately 51°N. Random samples of larvae were taken at three week intervals during the vegetation period, and once a month during winter. Sex, instar, body length, head capsule width and wing pad lenght of all larvae were recorded. Temperatures were recorded every hour, temporal patterns of temperature agreed closely between sites. Mean winter lows were 3.9 °C at both sites, the mean summer high was 11.9 °C at the lower site, as opposed to 9.6 °C at the mountain site. At both sites, adult emergence started in May. At the mountain site, recruitment started in late July and continued into autumn. There was cohort splitting in the young generation. Some individuals grew rapidly until October-November, but last instar larvae first appeared in March the next year. 1600 degree-days above 0 °C were accumulated during complete development. At the lower site, recruitment began in early July, and cohort splitting also occurred. Fast growing summer recruits emerged as adults in late August, having accumulated only 700 degree-days (above 0 °C). Their offspring hatched in November-December and emerged the next spring, having accumulated also only 700 degree-days. However, only part of the population was bivoltine. Many of the summer recruits grew more slowly and accumulated close to 1900 degree days until they emerged the next spring, together with the offspring of their own fastgrowing siblings. Dependence of growth rate on temperature could not be estimated and appears to vary with daylength. For example, 3-6 °C support growth and development provided daylength exceeds 10 hrs of light, or is rising. At both sites and in all cohorts individuals emerging earliest were larger than later emerging ones. The size decline is significantly correlated with number of days after the winter solstice. For the first time it is shown that the decline does not occur shortly before adult emergence but actually takes place several instars before the last. Size differences are then carried on, and amplified, during subsequent molts, until adulthood. The literature presently relates seasonal size declines of insects to high or rising temperatures experienced by larvae approaching adulthood. Our data show that, at least in Nemurella, this explanation fails. On average, females were distinctly larger than males. Differences in mean last instar size were noticed also between sites and years. They remain presently unexplained. The mean sex ratio in both populations was close to 1:1.