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Journal Article

General nonlinear 2-fluid hydrdynamics of complex fluids and soft matter


Pleiner,  Harald
MPI for Polymer Research, Max Planck Society;

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Pleiner, H., & Harden, J. L. (2003). General nonlinear 2-fluid hydrdynamics of complex fluids and soft matter. Notices of University, South of Russia, Natural Sciences, 46-61.

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We discuss general 2-fluid hydrodynamic equations for complex fluids, where one kind is a simple Newtonian fluid, while the other is either liquid-crystalline or polymeric/elastomeric, thus being applicable to lyotropic liquid crystals, polymer solutions, and swollen elastomers. The procedure can easily be generalized to other complex fluid solutions. Special emphasis is laid on such nonlinearities that originate from the 2-fluid description, like the transport part of the total time derivatives. It is shown that the proper velocities, with which the hydrdynamic quantities are convected, cannot be chosen at will, since there are subtile relations among them. Within allowed combinations the convective velocities are generally material dependent. The so-called stress division problem, i.e. how the nematic or elastic stresses are distributed between the two fluids, is shown to depend partially on the choice of the convected velocities, but is otherwise also material dependent. A set of reasonably simplified equations is given as well as a linearized version of an effective concentration dynamics that may be used for comparison with experiments.