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The physics of chromatin

MPG-Autoren
http://pubman.mpdl.mpg.de/cone/persons/resource/persons48698

Schiessel,  Helmut
MPI for Polymer Research, Max Planck Society;

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Zitation

Schiessel, H. (2003). The physics of chromatin. Journal of Physics-Condensed Matter, 15(19), R699-R774.


Zitierlink: http://hdl.handle.net/11858/00-001M-0000-000F-61F6-7
Zusammenfassung
Recent progress has been made in the understanding of the physical properties of chromatin-the dense complex of DNA and histone proteins that Occupies the nuclei of plant and animal cells. Here I will focus on the two lowest levels of the hierarchy of DNA folding into the chromatin complex. (i) The nucleosome, the chromatin repeating unit consisting of a globular aggregate of eight histone proteins with the DNA wrapped around it: its overcharging, the DNA unwrapping transition, the 'sliding' of the octamer along the DNA. (ii) The 30 nm chromatin fibre, the necklace-like structure of nucleosomes connected via linker DNA: its geometry, its mechanical properties under stretching and its response to changing ionic conditions. I will stress that chromatin combines two seemingly contradictory features: (1) high compaction of DNA within the nuclear envelope and, at the same time, (2) accessibility to genes, promoter regions and gene regulatory sequences.